"Karl Landsteiner's work made it possible to determine blood types and thus paved the way for blood transfusions to be carried out safely. For this discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930."
Source: http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/landsteiner/readmore.html, Accessed 12/12/08.
"The compartments of the cell, the organelles, are so small that it was impossible to study their structure until the electron microscope became available in 1938. Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 for developing methods making it possible to take a closer look at the organelles and for discovering some of them."
Source: http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/cell/, Accessed 12/12/08.
"All organisms consist of cells that multiply through cell division. An adult human being has approximately 100,000 billion cells, all originating from a single cell, the fertilized egg cell. In adults there is also an enormous number of continuously dividing cells replacing those dying. Before a cell can divide it has to grow in size, duplicate its chromosomes and separate the chromosomes for exact distribution between the two daughter cells. These different processes are coordinated in the cell cycle." Source: http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2001/press.html, Accessed 12,12.08.
"Watson and Crick used stick-and-ball models to test their ideas on the possible structure of DNA. Other scientists used experimental methods instead. Among them were Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, who were using X-ray diffraction to understand the physical structure of the DNA molecule.
"When you shine X-rays on any kind of crystal – and some biological molecules, such as DNA, can form crystals if treated in certain ways – the invisible rays bounce off the sample. The rays then create complex patterns on photographic film. By looking at the patterns, it is possible to figure out important clues about the structures that make up the crystal."
Source: http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/dna_double_helix/readmore.html, Accessed 12/12/08.
"Sound is caused by changes of pressure in the air that is transformed into nerve impulses in the inner ear."
Source: http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/ear. Accessed 12/13/08.
"The electrocardiogram or ECG (sometimes called EKG) is today used worldwide as a relatively simple way of diagnosing heart conditions. An electrocardiogram is a recording of the small electric waves being generated during heart activity."
Source: http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/ecg/ecg-readmore.html, Accessed 12/12/08.
"Amino Acids Make Up the Protein
"Proteins can vary in length and size and look very different, but they are all composed of smaller units, i.e. molecules called amino acids. Inside our body there are 20 amino acids all with different chemical and physical properties. In the table below their names and abbreviations can be found.
Name Abbrev. Short Abbrev. alanine Ala A arginine Arg R asparagine Asn N aspartic acid Asp D cysteine Cys C glutamine Gln Q glutamic acid Glu E glycine Gly G histidine His H isoleucine Ile I leucine Leu L lysine Lys K methionine Met M phenylalanine Phe F proline Pro P serine Ser S threonine Thr T tryptophan Trp W tyrosine Tyr Y valine Val V
"But how does the organism know how to assemble these proteins compromising of the different amino acids? How can the organism "read" the RNA, the blueprint copy, and how is the information written in the RNA?"
Source: http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/gene-code/how.html, Accessed 12/15/08.
"Malaria affects huge numbers of people worldwide: up to 300 million clinical cases, mainly children, emerge each year causing 1.5 to 2.7 million deaths."
Source: http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/malaria/readmore/index.html, Accessed 12-12-08.
"'White rice can be poisonous!' ... Christiaan Eijkman declared in 1896 on his return to the Netherlands, after ten years of research in Batavia, Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Jakarta, Indonesia)."
[Source: http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/vitamin_b1/eijkman.html, accessed December 12, 2008]
Are you eating brown rice? Why or why not? Did you play the game 0n vitamin B1? Will you add brown rice to your menu?
Nobel and Honeywell: http://nobelprize.org/nobelweb/pressroom/honeywell.html