Sunday, December 14, 2008

Raw Data for Digital Cameras

Raw format for data taken in photos is increasingly being used in scientific publications. I am adding some resources here related to this topic. I will add new information periodically to this post.

Digital Camera Raw


Compare RAW, TIFF, and JPEG

RAW Conversion

How do I change the picture format from jpeg to raw?
(By the way, such a change can save you about $900.00)

Saturday, December 13, 2008

Play and Win: Nobel Prize Games---Learning key current information in a jovial way.

Nobel Prize games: Learn current information from top thinkers and do-ers by playing games.

"Karl Landsteiner's work made it possible to determine blood types and thus paved the way for blood transfusions to be carried out safely. For this discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930."
Source:, Accessed 12/12/08.
"The compartments of the cell, the organelles, are so small that it was impossible to study their structure until the electron microscope became available in 1938. Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 for developing methods making it possible to take a closer look at the organelles and for discovering some of them."
Source:, Accessed 12/12/08.
"All organisms consist of cells that multiply through cell division. An adult human being has approximately 100,000 billion cells, all originating from a single cell, the fertilized egg cell. In adults there is also an enormous number of continuously dividing cells replacing those dying. Before a cell can divide it has to grow in size, duplicate its chromosomes and separate the chromosomes for exact distribution between the two daughter cells. These different processes are coordinated in the cell cycle." Source:, Accessed 12,12.08.

"Watson and Crick used stick-and-ball models to test their ideas on the possible structure of DNA. Other scientists used experimental methods instead. Among them were Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, who were using X-ray diffraction to understand the physical structure of the DNA molecule.

"When you shine X-rays on any kind of crystal – and some biological molecules, such as DNA, can form crystals if treated in certain ways – the invisible rays bounce off the sample. The rays then create complex patterns on photographic film. By looking at the patterns, it is possible to figure out important clues about the structures that make up the crystal."
Source:, Accessed 12/12/08.

"Sound is caused by changes of pressure in the air that is transformed into nerve impulses in the inner ear."
Source: Accessed 12/13/08.
"The electrocardiogram or ECG (sometimes called EKG) is today used worldwide as a relatively simple way of diagnosing heart conditions. An electrocardiogram is a recording of the small electric waves being generated during heart activity."
Source:, Accessed 12/12/08.

"Amino Acids Make Up the Protein

"Proteins can vary in length and size and look very different, but they are all composed of smaller units, i.e. molecules called amino acids. Inside our body there are 20 amino acids all with different chemical and physical properties. In the table below their names and abbreviations can be found.

Name Abbrev. Short Abbrev.
alanine Ala A
arginine Arg R
asparagine Asn N
aspartic acid Asp D
cysteine Cys C
glutamine Gln Q
glutamic acid Glu E
glycine Gly G
histidine His H
isoleucine Ile I
leucine Leu L
lysine Lys K
methionine Met M
phenylalanine Phe F
proline Pro P
serine Ser S
threonine Thr T
tryptophan Trp W
tyrosine Tyr Y
valine Val V

"But how does the organism know how to assemble these proteins compromising of the different amino acids? How can the organism "read" the RNA, the blueprint copy, and how is the information written in the RNA?"

Source:, Accessed 12/15/08.

"Malaria affects huge numbers of people worldwide: up to 300 million clinical cases, mainly children, emerge each year causing 1.5 to 2.7 million deaths."
Source:, Accessed 12-12-08.

"'White rice can be poisonous!' ... Christiaan Eijkman declared in 1896 on his return to the Netherlands, after ten years of research in Batavia, Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Jakarta, Indonesia)."
[Source:, accessed December 12, 2008]
Reflection questions:

Are you eating brown rice? Why or why not? Did you play the game 0n vitamin B1? Will you add brown rice to your menu?

Nobel and Honeywell:

Tuesday, December 9, 2008

The Old Oak Tree and it's Life Cycle

Oak trees have been around and are a part of our culture for a long time. Perhaps you remember the song, "Tie a Yellow Ribbon 'round the old Oak Tree?" Ot, perhaps you recall Celtic folk tales.

Here is a story of the oak life cycle told by Teresa Guardiola, who has been featured previously on Read about it. It is based on Wendy Pfeffer's book. Can you write and tell science stories?

Neuroscience for Kids in Spanish, Slovene, Chinese, Portuguese, Italian, Korean, Dutch, Japanese, Turkish. and Standard American.

Here's a link:


花香-公園中散步的回憶 -踩到釘子的痛。 這些奇妙的感受皆來自於我們腦中三磅重的組織─!!

小小神經科學 是針對所有想要瞭解神經系統的學生和老師,所創作設計的網頁。



Neurociências para crianças

O cheiro de uma flor - A lembrança de um passeio no parque - A dor de pisar um prego. Todas estas experiência são possíveis por 1,5 kg de tecido nas nossas cabeças... o CÉREBRO! Neuroscience for Kids foi criado pelo Dr. Eric Chudler para todos os estudantes e professores que queiram aprender mais sobre o sistema nervoso. Neurosciences for Kids Portugal é a versão portuguesa deste site.


Esplora il Sistema Nervoso
Il cervello, il midollo spinale, i neuroni, i sensi...che saranno mai?

Please add your comments on this program

Click, "Comments," below to add your experience with this program.

A reminder on definitions...

Remember you can double-click words in posts to obtain definitions.

Excel ^(TM) in Education

In math and entertainment:
A use of Excel to model Sudoku is presented in a paper available on-line at:

Related papers of interest are found at:

In all subjects and in science:
Dr-J has found that student use of Excel^TM to create indexes of their notebooks (including class and lab notes, as well as homework and handout sheets), enables students to see what is important to both the teacher and to themselves. It enables students to prioritize study time while customizing their own learning toward their own interests and value systems. Indexing also helps students link concepts they are studying, teaches job skills (computer and organizational). Familiarity with a spreadsheet program in this way encourages students to see how the same spreadsheet can be used to create tables, analyze laboratory data, and see how skills in science class are transferable to other subjects.

Excel is a registered trademark of Microsoft.

[Under development]

Monday, December 8, 2008

Help improve Science a Text Book

If you don't like science or if you do, you can write and be considered for publication in a WeBooks science book. You can join if you are interested in improving science education. You can join in if you home school, or go to a public or private school. You may write in any language as long as you include an English translation. You must be of legal age to submit work, however, a parent or guardian may submit for those under age. The entries will be edited prior to publication in a text. In a way, this is global, "brainstorming," for a new book. Your participation is welcome. What you post may also guide the development of interactive technology and laboratory exercises for science classes. Please do join in and improve science literacy.


Here's one reason why! :-)